Later in the 19th century, artists began incorporating the spontaneous look of the ébauche in their finished works, as in this painting by Naturalist Émile Friant.
In his book The Mastery of Oil Painting, Frederic Taubes offered a similar underpainting palette to that of the Academy, consisting of lead white, ochre, umber, Prussian blue, and Venetian red.³¹ Taubes proposed that colors like umber and Prussian blue were especially desirable in the first-painting because of their exceptional siccative qualities.³² He also suggested specifically adding Copal Varnish to the stiff white lead used in the underpainting. Not only would this additive make the paint be more pliable, it would also make the initial layer thinner and more absorbent; since the liquid part of the varnish is volatile, as it dries, the only deposit left in the paint would be the resin which would impart this quality to the paint. As white predominates the color mixtures, there would be no need to add the varnish to the other colors on the palette.³³
Paintings by JoshuaLa Rock
Joshua LaRock, Nina
Contemporary painter, Morgan Weistling, uses a technique which resembles the ébauche. Weistling's colors are low in chroma, and are placed on the canvas as if he were laying individual tiles of tone.
² Albert Boime, The Academy & French Painting in the Nineteenth Century, (Phaidon Publishers, Inc., New York, 1971),p. 39.
³ Anthea Callen, Techniques of the Impressionists, (Tiger Books International, Ltd., London, 1988), p. 86.
⁴ P.L. Bouvier, Manuel des jeunes artistes et amateurs en peinture, (F.G. Levrault, Paris, 1832), pp. 210-211.
⁵ Laughton Osborn, Handbook of Young Artists and Amateurs in Oil Painting, (John Wiley Publishing, New York, 1849), pp. 156-157.
⁶ Ralph Mayer, The Artist’s Handbook of Materials and Techniques, 5th edition, (Penguin Books, New York, 1991), p. 56.
⁸ ibid., p. 55.
⁹ Osborn, p. 165.
¹⁰ Mayer, pp. 42 and 97.
¹¹ ibid., p. 61.
¹² ibid., p. 37.
¹³ Boime, p. 194.
¹⁴ Osborn, pp. 156-163.
¹⁵ Boime, p. 37.
¹⁷ Callen, p. 188.
¹⁸ Boime, p. 37.
¹⁹ Callen, p. 188.
²¹ J.S. Templeton, The Guide to Oil Painting, (Rownby, Dillon, and Rowney, London, 1845), p. 38.
²² Boime, p. 37.
²³ ibid., p. 38.
²⁵ Osborn, pp. 173-174.
²⁶ Boime, pp. 38-39.
²⁷ Boime, p. 39.
²⁸ Templeton, p. 37.
²⁹ Templeton, p. 44.
³⁰ Boime, p. 39.
³¹ Frederic Taubes, The Mastery of Oil Painting, (Bramhall House, New York, 1953), p. 157.
³³ Taubes, p. 156. Copal varnish, when properly prepared and applied, will dry to the touch rapidly, and will not be as susceptible dissolving when additional layers of paint containing turpentine are added (Damar varnish, on the other hand, will always be vulnerable to even mild, volatile solvents.).
³⁴ Callen, p. 186.