Thursday, June 28, 2012

News From David Kassan

Kassan in the New York subway system during filming for APVM

The always busy David Kassan has somehow found the time between painting and holding international workshops to do some interviews and to design a new art product.  Look for him early next month sharing a drawing demonstration for American Painting Video Magazine, and next week, he will be introducing his new painting apparatus, the Parallel Palette.  The full-length drawing demo filmed in the NYC subway will be available for FREE July 1st at the APVM website, and the full, 13 minute time-lapse video of Kassan painting a portrait using his Parallel Palette system will be posted to Kassan's Youtube page next Thursday.  Also, keep your eye out for Kassan's Limited Edition Drawing Set, available from General Pencil, and featuring products from General and PanPastel, as well as a step-by-step drawing guide of one of Kassan's works.

The David Kassan Limited Edition Drawing Set from General Pencil

Visit Kassan's Youtube Page to see the full video.

Sunday, June 24, 2012

Libertat Hundertpfund and the Origins of the Modern palette

Johann Wolfgang van Goethe's conception of the color wheel (1810)

Libertat Hundertpfund was an artist who never quite attained the status of being a 'household name.'  His moniker so awkwardly stumbles off the average tongue, that the question arises as to whether or not it was even a familiar name in his own home (as the name translates roughly to "liberty hundred-pound," one might even ask if it were real and not a pseudonym).  But, despite his relative anonymity, Herr Hundertpfund has influenced countless of artists over the past century and a half, for it is Hundertpfund who has been credited with establishing the modern color palette.

(photo courtesy of Oakland University)

Hundertpfund, a painter of history scenes, was searching for a way to better imitate the life and transparency of shadows in nature when he happened upon a glass prism, and became engrossed in the colors of the spectrum which it produced.  While contemplating these colors, and how they affected each other, he visualized the Primary colors (red, yellow, and blue) as spokes originating from the center of a circle;  where the primaries blended into each other, new colors, which Hundertpfund called secondary or derivative colors (orange, green, and violet), were formed.  Though Hundertpfund cannot be the first credited with envisioning this "circular arrangement of the colours of the prismatic spectrum"¹ – Moses Harris had put forth the idea in 1766, and in 1810 Johann Wolfgang van Goethe attempted to give a rational explanation of color as illustrated with a color wheel – he did become the first to try and offer a practical application of this theory of color specifically to painters.

In his book, The Art of Painting Restored to its Simplest and Surest Principles, 1849, Hundertpfund attempted to teach students a more general but accurate understanding of color based upon his personal observations of Nature, and upon his years of experience as a painter.  His descriptions of color were often more philosophical than utilitarian, speaking of color in terms of elevation, joy, and Life and Death, but perhaps this can be forgiven;  his explanation of colors, the color wheel, and how colors affect each other, though commonplace now, were novel then, and the vocabulary describing color interaction had not yet been established.

He believed that the colors of the Rainbow were "Ideal Colors," and he surmised that if paint manufacturers could produce material colors which matched the three Primary ideal colors (red, yellow, and blue), artists would never need another color on their palettes. "We ought, further, to endeavor to lesson the number of pigments, so that it may be clearly and easily understood, that, in fact, we paint with three colours only.  We must bring back the material colours to the ideal ones;  and observe that in the Rainbow, the whole law of colours, the whole secret of Tones, the whole science of colouring – in short, the key to Mixing, is to be found."² But since there were not yet pigments available which could match the ideal, a method of painting had to be established which would make the most of the colors to be had, and which could best approximate Nature.

The painting techniques he developed were based upon "the laws of the three Primary colours" and the idea of contrasted or opposite color (color complements).  Whether painting indirectly or painting Prima, Hundertpfund advocated first laying-in a color on the canvas which was opposite of the desired finished color.  So, for example, if a piece of cloth were to be a "warm" red color in the completed painting, it must be first under-painted with the color opposite it on the color wheel – in this case, a "warm" green† (for an indirect painting, the color would be laid-in thinly and allowed to dry before proceeding;  for direct painting, an indistinct scumble of more intense color would be laid down and then painted in-to).  By these methods, Hundertpfund felt that whole-tones, half-tones, and shadows could best be expressed without risking "lifelessness" of color.

Unlike the palettes of his predecessors, Hundertpfund's palette was not crowded with upwards of one hundred pre-mixed tints.  "Those painters who mix Tones beforehand know very well that they cannot make use of many among them.  To what purpose is it, then, that we give ourselves profitless labor?"³  Instead he employed around twenty simple pigments, mixing with his brush from the whole colors on his palette what he needed as he went along – at times, even on the painting itself.

Hundertpfund's Palette (Plate II)

Hundertpfund based his palette on the ideal Primaries, and laid his pigments out like a color wheel which had been cut and stretched into line.  Since there were not ideal colors to be found among the material pigments offered by the colormen, Hundertpfund had to use several pigments from each hue family to approximate the possibilities of that group's ideal color (The one exception to this was genuine ultramarine blue, which, when found, could stand for all of the blues on the palette.  It was the only pigment which Hundertpfund felt was "ideal," because it had the necessary depth, and would remain pure when mixed with white.)

I will now describe those pigments which are generally acknowledged to be primary colours;  and also show how a palette should be prepared, as it is not so unimportant as some might suppose. 
Our material colours (pigments) exhibit themselves in two different kinds of Tones, as do the ideal;  they have a positive and a negative life.  The life of the Blue is negative, that of the Yellow positive.  For this reason we consider Blue as a cold, and Yellow as a warm colour;  and between these stands Red, which is neither negative nor positive, neither warm nor cold.  In preparing the palette, then, Red should stand between these two, and in the centre of all the other pigments;  on the right all the warm pigments;  on the left all the cold.  By this means two different sorts of Tones will appear on the palette. (See Plate II.) 
Since we have no good medium Red among our pigments, then Madder Lake must be used in its place.  If any one prefers painting with Carmine, let him use it, but the former is preferable on account of its depth and durability.  Next, on the right, stands Vermillion; then well burnt light Terra di Sienna (whoever has not got this can use Light Red instead);  then comes slightly burnt dark Terra di Sienna, then Roman Ochre, Gold and Yellow Ochres, then Naples Yellow, and lastly, Crems White. 
To the left of the Madder Lake, the light Oxide of Iron (Venetian Red), then Violet Oxide of Iron (Violet de Mars), then Ultramarine, Cobalt, and Prussian Blue.  Green Cinnabar (Cobalt Green, or Rinmann's Green), being the connecting colour between Blue and Yellow, forms the conclusion of the series, if we consider them as arranged in a circle.  After these follow Veronese Green, Ultramarine Ashes, and burnt Tyrolese Earth;  then Mummy and Asphaltum as half-tones:  but as these are composed of all three primary colours, they do not belong to the circle, which consists only of primary and secondary colours, and of whole-tones.  These five pigments are only to be regarded as softening connecting Tones for the whole palette.  Veronese Green and Ultramarine Ashes are negative, Mummy and burnt Tyrolese Earth, positive, and Asphaltum, neutral, softening Tones.  Then follow Black, and even Graphite (Black Lead), Blue Black, and Ivory Black. 
White and Black have nothing in them of primary colour, and therefore do not belong to the Colours. 
This arrangement of the palette is founded on the prismatic order.⁴

Hundertpfund's palette, limited as it was to base colors, was one of the first to omit pigment mixtures, and served as a precursor to the common color palette employed by the majority of artists today.  Why it is that his name and contributions are little known today is a mystery.  F.Schmid, in his book, The Practice of Painting (1948), seems to have been the first to resurrect Hundertpfund's palette, but devotes only a short caption to the artist's ideas ("Hundertpfund declared himself against any mixtures prepared beforehand on the palette.  With him an age-long tradition found its end."⁵), and Faber Birren in History of Color in Painting mentions Hundertpfund only in connection with Schmid's book.  Perhaps now, with Hundertpfund's The Art of Painting Restored to its Simplest and Surest Principles being readily available to read through GoogleBooks, some credit will be returned to this forgotten color theorist and how he changed the future of artists' methods.

"If I only succeed in teaching young artists how to obtain the right view of the actual nature and operation of colours, I think my essay will not be useless, nor entirely without effect.  But I am far from wishing to put a restraint upon any one by these general rules;  but hope that every one will of his own accord be convinced by continual practice, that this method of painting offers the greatest freedom."⁶

† If a warm red were under-painted with a cool green, the nature of their exact oppositeness would result in the colors "killing" each other, an undesirable outcome.

¹ Hundertpfund, Libertat, The Art of Painting Restored to its Simplest and Surest Principles, (David Bogue, London, 1849), p. vii (preface).
² ibid., p. 3.
³ ibid., p. 40.
⁴ ibid., pp. 24-26.
⁵ Schmid, F., The Practice of Painting, (Faber and Faber Limited, London, 1948), p. 98.
⁶ Hundertpfund, pp. 85-86.

Monday, June 18, 2012

Words of Wisdom: Samuel Morse

"I need not tell you what a difficult profession I have undertaken.  It has difficulties in itself which are sufficient to deter any man who has not firmness enough to go through with it at all hazards, without meeting any obstacles aside from it.  The more I study it, the more I am enchanted with it;  and the greater my progress, the more I am struck with its beauties. . . ."¹ in a letter from Samuel Morse to his parents, dated May 2, 1814.

Samuel F.B. Morse
The Gallery of the Louvre
oil on canvas
6 X 9 feet

The central figure looking over the art student's shoulder is Morse himself. At left, in the red turban, is American Richard Habersham, Morse's Paris roommate.  In the back lefthand corner is Sue Cooper, with her mother,  Susan, and her father, the author James Fenimore Cooper, looking admiringly at their daughter's work.  Entering the gallery with hat-in-hand is Horatio Greenough.  The other women in the scene are not identified, but serve as symbols to the American audience for whom the painting was created.  The woman in the white, peaked hat, and the young girl by her side, are from Brittany, and show how in Europe, art is available for all classes and ages.  The female art students are a reminder how in progressive France, unlike in the United States, women were not barred from studying art.

Many people remember Samuel Finley Breese Morse as the father of the American electromagnetic  telegraph, and as the creator of the dot and dash system of communication that bears his name, but few people remember Samuel Morse the artist.  As a student at Yale, Morse showed some aptitude for science, but it was in painting and drawing where he excelled, and where his interests did lay.  "I was made for a painter,"² he told his parents at the age of nineteen.  But Morse, despite his Calvinist preacher father being a well-known geographer, was not so financially well off as to easily afford professional art training.  Even after years of hard work, when Morse had developed a reputation as a portrait painter of excellence, he had difficulties supporting his wife and children;  his youthful dreams of visiting the Louvre and studying art in Paris were far beyond his income, and seemed all but hopeless.  He needed to increase his earnings in order to continue painting, and turned his attentions toward inventions and patents as a means to supplement his meager wealth.

His early inventions brought him little remuneration.  In 1817, a leather, water pump that Morse and his brother Sidney developed for use on fire engines was a successful tool, but a financial failure.  A marble-cutting machine Morse designed five years later ended up infringing on another inventors' patents, and also brought him little monetary relief.

Morse's original telegraph machine was made from various
pieces of other equipment, including a canvas stretcher.

When Morse eventually travelled to France around 1830, it was on advances he had received from American collectors who had hired him to make copies of famous paintings in Europe.  It was in France, where Morse first saw a telegraph - a series of towers spaced six miles apart which enabled men, when the weather was clear, to relay semaphore messages across the country.  After losing on a bid to create paintings for the American Capitol, Morse quit art entirely, and decided instead to focus on his own design for an electric telegraph.  Combining contemporary work in electronics and electromagnetism, and building upon less successful electric telegraphs recently invented, Morse was able to create a practical and efficient system of single-wire communication which reshaped the world.  The rest, as they say, is history.


In 1825, a group of artists from the American Academy of the fine Arts, including Morse, Asher B. Durand, Martin Thompson, and Thomas Cole, formed a drawing cooperative they called the New York Drawing Association.  It was run by and for artists, and aimed "to promote the fine arts in America through instruction and exhibition."³  Morse was elected its first president.

A year later, after a failed attempt to reconcile members of the Drawing Association with its estranged parent organization, the American Academy, Morse and his followers formed the National Academy of the Arts of Design.  It was their hope that this new group would better support teaching and would be free of the stodginess and exclusivity⁴ associated with the American Academy and its president, John Trumbull.  Morse became the first president of the National Academy, and was made famous as a teacher through a series of lectures on art that he delivered at Colombia College, the first such talks ever given by an American artist.⁵

Morse, who was, in 1827, still familiar with financial hardship and the struggles of being an artist, offered these words of wisdom to his audience:

At a gathering of the National Academy, while awarding prizes to young artists, he told them that if they expected a painter's life to be one of ease and pleasure, they were greatly mistaken.  It was "a life of severe and perpetual toil."  They must expect "continual obstacles and discouragements, and be prepared to encounter illiberality, neglect, obscurity, and poverty."  Only an "intense and inextinguishable love of art" could sustain them to bear up, and if they did not feel this love, they should "turn while yet they might to other pursuits."⁶

David McCullough's book, The Greater Journey:  Americans in Paris has a section dealing with Samuel Morse, his time in Paris, and the creation of the ambitious 6' by 9' painting, Gallery of the Louvre (pictured above).  To hear McCollough speak about the painting, please visit The Best of the Louvre, On a Single Canvas, at the National Public Radio website.  The Greater Journey: Americans in Paris, published in 2011, is available at

¹ McCullough, David, The Greater Journey: Americans in Paris, (Simon & Schuster, New York, 2011), p. 80.
² ibid., p. 76.
³ "National Academy of Design," retrieved June 18, 2012 from [].
⁴ McCullough, p. 84.
⁵ idem.
⁶ idem.

Sunday, June 17, 2012

Art of the Portrait 2012: Day 3, The Final Day

(from l. to r.)  Michael Shane Neal, Mary Whyte, and Bart Lindstrom discuss the Various Paths to Success.

The morning of Sunday, May 27th, marked the beginning of the end of the 14th annual Art of the Portrait Conference in Philadelphia.  Though there were still many activities scheduled, the mood was, as is usual for the final day of the event, subdued.  In the midst of all that was left to do, artists were packing and saying their good-byes, and making their ways back to the solitude of their studios.  Underneath the excitement from the weekend, there is, on the last day, also a current of melancholy as everyone realizes the weekend has come to a close.

During the first presentation of the day, panelists Michael Shane Neal, Mary Whyte, and Bart Lindstrom offered advice to the audience on how to succeed in art despite the difficulties presented by the current economy.  Tapping into their personal experiences, the three provided ideas on The Various Paths to Success, and answered questions from the packed auditorium.  One of the solutions proposed was that working artists should consider supplementing their art income with teaching, an option that many people find intimidating.  Neal, who is a very popular teacher, shared his fears and feelings of inadequacy when he first considered offering lessons.  He had to be reminded and encouraged by his mentor, Dawn Whitelaw, "There are many people out there eager to learn, who know less than you do; even if you've only been painting for two weeks, you know more than someone who has never painted."

The normally mild Michael Shane Neal becomes irate when an audience member suggests it is too early in the season to wear a light-colored suit (though rumors persist that he was, perhaps,  just acting out for the camera).

Anne Hall introduces her friend and teacher, Nelson Shanks.

In a program titled East Meets West, the final presentation of the weekend, conference-goers saw a film discussing the recent history-making solo exhibition of Nelson Shanks' work in Russia.  Shanks, who was invited to show his works at the request of the Russian Academy of Arts in Moscow, is only the second living American afforded this prestigious honor.  Fifty of Shanks' paintings, including several of his most famous portraits, travelled to Russia to go on display, first at the Russian Museum in St. Petersburg, and then at the Russian Academy of Arts in Moscow.  While traveling with his artworks, Shanks taught master classes at several locations within Russia, attracting large crowds from all over the former Soviet Union, and creating a media frenzy.  After the film ended, Shanks gave an onstsge-interview with artist Dan Thompson.

Artist Dan Thompson acts as interviewer during Shanks' presentation.

Shanks with his portrait of Margaret, Lady Thatcher, the first post-colonial English Chancellor of William & Mary College.

With the ending of Nelson Shanks' presentation came the official close of the conference, and immediately afterward attendees scrambled to either make their ways home, or to head for the hotel entrance where transportation for the weekend's optional last events were available.  By prior registration, conference members had the choice of either visiting the Brandywine River Museum in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, or to take a round-trip trolley tour to Shanks' Studio Incamminati, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and the Philadelphia Museum of Art.  For those who were able to stay, there was still an afternoon of art-filled activities left to do!

Artist Juan Martinez, one of last year's finalists, saying good-bye to Rosemary Thompson, owner of Rosemary & Co. Brushes.

Brochures from Studio Incamminati.

Yours truly closely examining a painting by William McGregor Paxton
at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.
(photo courtesy Linda Lee Nelson)

The Portrait Society of America's Art of the Portrait Conference is an event which has a lot to offer to today's figurative and portrait artists.  The International Portrait Competition, which attracts much of the attention during the conference, is only one part of this annual celebration of the arts.  There are of course demonstrations, presentations, and networking, too, but in all of the years I have attended this convention, the one benefit which has made itself absolutely clear is the sense of community generated by the weekend.  The Art of the Portrait conference offers large-scale camaraderie to a group of artists whose chosen discipline of realism has often made them feel like outsiders.  The support of one's peers and the inspiration instilled by bearing witness to the artworks currently being created in studios worldwide, is something which must be experienced to be truly valued.  And once you open yourself up to those feelings, you'll understand the goal behind the conference, and keep coming back year after year.

The Fifteenth Annual Art of the Portrait Conference will take place April 25th through the 28th next year.  Once again, the event will be held in Atlanta, Georgia.  Discounted registration is available now for those who reserve their spot before July 1st.  Please visit the Portrait Society of America website for more information.

See you there!

Thursday, June 14, 2012

Art of the Portrait 2012: Day 2,
The Awards Banquet

Chairman Edward Jonas

The big occasion of the Art of the Portrait Conference is always the Awards Banquet and Gala, held on the Saturday evening of the event weekend.  During the reception, the International Portrait Competition award winners - including the William Draper Grand Prize recipient - are announced, recognition is given to attendees with the most outstanding portfolios, the Leadership in the Fine Arts Award is presented, the Gold Medal is awarded for lifetime achievement in the arts, and a keynote address is given by the guest of honor.  It is a non-stop and exciting event where artists honor their own, and as such, has previously been considered the Academy Awards® of portrait and figurative art.

Cocktail reception before the banquet.

Attendees waiting for the banquet room doors to open.

At 7:00 PM, the door opened to the ballroom, and banquet attendees began streaming through the doors to find seats for the evening.  Very shortly after everyone was seated, dinner was served, complete with an art-themed dessert.  Once the audience was well sated, it was time for the ceremonies to begin.

Michael Shane Neal with the 2012 Portfolio Winners 

William Draper Grand Prize Winner Julio Reyes leaving the stage after receiving his award from Jack Richeson.

Lou Wetmore

The 2012 banquet will likely be remembered as one of the most emotional award events in the history of the Art of the Portrait.  After the portfolio and portrait competition awards were handed out, Lou Wetmore came to the stage and gave a humorous and touching memorial to his older brother Gordon.  The tribute, which was followed by a short film by Tony Pro dedicated to the fallen Chairman, was filled with funny stories about Gordon's entry into the art field and how Lou has mischievously masqueraded as Gordon at past conferences to gain accolades meant for his sibling.   But the overall message was one of love and pride, and also of gratitude, as Lou felt Gordon would be happy knowing his vision for the Portrait Society of America was still moving forward.  This was later followed by the Gold Medal presentation to Marshall Bouldin, in which Bouldin was introduced by his son Jason Bouldin.  The younger Bouldin's emotions were hard for him to keep in check as he presented a man who was mentor, friend, and colleague, as well as father.  By the time the elder Bouldin had graciously and humbly accepted his award, and offered his thoughts on being an artist, there was hardly a dry eye in the crowd.

Wende Caporale presenting the Wetmore Leadership in the Fine Arts Award to Derek A. Gillman

Derek Gillman

Jason Bouldin giving a touching introduction of the 2012 Gold Medal Award winner, his father, Marshall Bouldin.

"Happiness is a by-product of trying to obtain a goal." ~ Marshall Bouldin

Edward Jonas presenting the Gold Medal Award to Marshall Bouldin.

"Isn't it great to be an artist?" Bouldin asked the audience.  Bouldin, born in 1923, announced his plans to retire from painting in 2024.

Derek A. Gillman, President of the Barnes Foundation and Museum, gives the keynote address.

Derek Gillman President and Executive Director of the Barnes Foundation and Museum had the unenviable task of taking the stage twice;  once after Lou Wetmore, and then again after Marshall Bouldin.  Had these been bookings on The Tonight Show, he could easily have claimed he had a terrible agent.  Gillman even joked that he planned never to follow children, animals, or Marshall Bouldin onstage again.  But Gillman is no stranger to taking front-and-center in a difficult situation.  When he was appointed to lead the Barnes Foundation, it was during a period of many years of contention and controversy, yet he took the helm and helped guide this educational institution during its move from suburban Philadelphia to Center City.  It was for this stewardship that he was awarded the newly-re-named Wetmore Leadership in the Fine Arts Award.  His slide presentation later in the program introduced those unfamiliar with the late Andrew Barnes, to the eccentric collector's assortment of Modern and traditional art.

David Gluck, Kate Stone, and Gregory Mortenson

David Kassan, Candice Bohannon, and Julio Reyes

With 20 Finalists and 30 Certificate of Excellence Winners, it was difficult to fit everyone on the stage!

When the banquet ended, many of the conference-goers headed to the hotel lobby to celebrate and socialize into the early hours of the next day.

Art of the Portrait 2012: Day 2

The finalist paintings on display.

The morning of the second day was filled with the anticipation of knowing that the winners of the 2012 International Portrait Competition would be announced at the banquet later in the evening. Convention-goers visited and re-visited the room in which the finalists were displayed, and those that had had a hard time picking their favorite as the People's Choice Winner could only imagine the difficulty the judging panel faced when deciding the order of the awards.

Portrait of Everett Raymond Kinstler by Michael Shane Neal
(from a demo done at the 2011 conference)

Signing the giclĂ©es 

Everett Raymond Kinstler began the day's events with Pointing the Way, a program that allowed the audience to gain from the artist's years of experience through listening to his critiques of attendee's pre-submitted portfolios.  As usual, Kinstler entertained the audience with his wry sense of humor and his funny life stories, but the audience left educated as well, filled with Kinstler's poignant observations on the works he reviewed.  Kinstler also reassured the audience that rejection was part of the life of being an artist, and that early in his own career, paintings which had been acclaimed by one group of judges were invariably panned by the next panel to which they were submitted.  Hang in there, though;  perseverance has a way of paying off.

Daniel Greene

Next to take the stage was Daniel Greene, who shared his over 50 years of experience with the audience as he painted a portrait during a segment called Realizing the Visual Experience.  An organized painter and teacher, Greene offered a clear demonstration of the process involved in his technique.  Of particular interest to the audience each year is Greene's color palette, which he developed after studying the works of the Masters in museums around the world.  His layout of colors with its pre-mixed color strings is foreign to most alla prima painters, and is consistently a source of curiosity to artists seeking more structure in their personal procedures.

Daniel Greene's Palette
Main Colors
Flake White
Ivory Black
Prussian Blue
Raw Sienna
Yellow Ochre
Naples Yellow
Cadmium Yellow Medium
Cadmium Red Light
Alizarin Crimson
Burnt Sienna
Raw Umber
Burnt Umber
Sap Green
Pthalo Green

Just prior to the lunch break, Michael Shane Neal brought some exciting news to the conference attendees.  Later this year, the Portrait Society of America will introduce a new honorific for which members are eligible to apply.  Those receiving approval will be able to append the designation "PSoA" to their names, in much the same way other artists place RA (Royal Academy), NA (National Academy), or OPA (Oil Painters of America) after their surnames.  More information on this designation of honor will soon be available on the Portrait Society's website.

John Ennis

Tony Pro

Bart Lindstrom

Susan Lyon telling the story of how she and Scott Burdick met.

Alexandra Tyng describing her palette.

As part of the lunchtime activities, conventioneers had the opportunity, through prior arrangement, to share their meals with faculty members.  In the intimate setting of Lunch & Learn, small groups of attendees are able to ask questions of their chosen artist, and listen to their personal stories.  This program is a recent addition to the Conference schedule and has proven to be quite popular.

David Kassan talking about his visit to the home of Antonio Lopez.

Rose Frantzen

Casey Baugh

Judy Carducci

Michael Shane Neal

At 2:00 PM, it was time for a demonstration by the People's Choice Winner of Thursday evening's Face-Off presentation.  This year's winner was Mary Whyte, who painted a watercolor portrait in her inimitable technique for the pleasure of the audience.

Mary Whyte's demo.

When Whyte finished her demonstration, it was time for those attending the banquet to hurry back to their rooms and prepare themselves for the evening ahead.

Burt Silverman taking a break from autographing palettes for the prize winners.