Sunday, February 24, 2013

Fiery Joe

James Abbott McNeill Whistler
Symphony in White, No. 1 : The White Girl (1862)
oil on canvas
83⅞ X 42½ in.

What may be surprising to today's audience of art appreciators is that when James Abbott McNeill Whistler's The White Girl was not accepted for the Royal Academy's 1862 exhibit, the judging panel's rejection was not an aesthetic decision, but a moral one.  Despite Whistler's insistence that the painting, "simply represents a girl dressed in white standing in front of a white curtain,"¹ the judges read in the work something a bit more prurient, and did not want a repeat of the scandal from the previous year's exhibit when they mistakingly admitted Edwin Landseer's The Shrew Tamed - a seemingly innocent picture depicting a high-bred horse with a famous equestrienne resting nearby, and which later turned out to be a less-than-innocent picture of a stallion accompanied by Catherine Walters, London's most notorious courtesan.²  The flowers strewn on the floor of Whistler's painting were seen as connoting "deflowering," and the wolfskin rug, with its open-mouthed face looking directly at the viewer and with a woman standing dominant over it, seemed nothing less than carnal.  Whistler, a proponent of "art for art's sake," continued his attempts at distancing The White Girl from meaning, even amending the picture's name to the more poetic, and less descriptive, Symphony in White, No. 1, but it was to no avail;  the work was too suggestive to avoid a deeper interpretation.

But was Whistler being disingenuous?  Were the critics correct;  was there more meaning in the picture than Whistler was willing to admit?

The model in the painting was Irishwoman Joanna Hiffernan, whom Whistler, or at least his friends, at times referred to as "Fiery Joe."  Of modest background but high aspirations, Hiffernan was a force of nature - tempestuous, beautiful, sympathetic, and intelligent - and for several years she acted as Whistler's model, housekeeper, and sometime business manager.  She was also his mistress.


Whistler's relationship with Hiffernan was of course unacceptable to polite society.  His own family thought she was nothing better than a prostitute, and perhaps, Whistler, at some level, thought of her the same way.  In his first well-known painting of Hiffernan, Wapping, Whistler conspicuously portrayed her in such a role, as a coquette playing two customers off each other.  In The White Girl he openly displayed her "lack of morals" in visual terms that Victorian society was sure to understand, and whether it was a comment on that society's views on female sexuality, or it was just Whistler's expression  – consciously or subconsciously – of the couple's relationship, Joanna's unchasteness was on display for all the world to see and condemn.

When The White Girl was shown at the Salon des Refusés in 1863, it caused a greater stir than even Édouard Manet's Déjeuner sur l'herbe, which was on view in another part of the same exhibit.  Displayed prominently, Whistler's picture of Joanna regularly attracted crowds at the event, often with with mixed reactions.  Many passersby would stop and stare at the painting in amazement, but after a few seconds spent reading the painting, they would turn to each other and laugh;  embarrassed women would hide their giggles behind their handkerchiefs, while the men would dig each other in the ribs and roar out loud.³  Fellow artists, such as Manet, Alphonse Legros, Félix Bracquemond, Henri Fantin-Latour, and Gustave Courbet, all admired the painting, however, as did many of the French art critics.  This does not mean that the interpretations by these disparate groups was at all different.

Édouard Manet
Déjeuner sur l'herbe

One fan of The White Girl, Jules-Antoine Castagnary, the art critic famous for providing the "Impressionists" with their sobriquet, felt the imagery of the flowers was as clearly readable as if the painting had displayed a broken jug or a dead bird⁴:  the woman in the painting had just lost her virginity.  But Castagnary saw in the figure a young bride of 21 or 22, the morning after her first night in the marriage bed.  He did not see her as a "scarlet woman," and suggested that such a misinterpretation of the legitimacy of her status correlated with the Academicians' inability to recognize the legitimacy of the artwork which formed the Salon des Refusés.  Such a reading though was quite political and calculated, and reflected more an attack at State-run art exhibits than a true evaluation.⁵

Symphony in White, No. 2:  The Little White Girl

Castagnary's interpretation does inspire an interesting analogy, however.  Robin Spencer, senior curator at the School of Art History at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, sees The White Girl as part of a metaphor describing Whistler's own ambitions as an artist.⁶  In the earlier painting, Wapping, Hiffernan is a prostitute;  in Symphony in White, No. 1:  The White Girl, she is a fallen woman; and in Symphony in White, No. 2:  The Little White Girl, in which Hiffernan's focus is on the wedding ring on her finger, she is finally the legitimized wife.  Whistler in his career hoped that he too could rise to a level of respect and acceptance from the lowly level of his beginnings in art.

The love affair between Hiffernan and Whistler ended after six years.  It is rumored that Hiffernan had had an affair with Courbet, for whom she also modeled, but whether the supposed dalliance had precipitated the relationship's dissolution, or if the affair was the result of a relationship that was already crumbling is unclear.  Apparently, Hiffernan never expected that Whistler would marry her, but perhaps she had always hoped that their partnership might be legitimized nonetheless.  Though the two separated, Jo remained in the periphery of Whistler's life, and even raised the son Whistler fathered with a parlor maid years after the breakup.  And at Whistler's funeral, a veiled Hiffernan quietly presented herself, to the surprise of many of the artist's old friends who had not seen the woman in years, and stood in silence at her former lover's coffin for over an hour before slipping away.

Gustave Courbet
Jo, La Belle Irlandaise (1865-66)

It was during the painting of The White Girl in Whistler's Paris studio that Hiffernan first met Courbet. The Frenchman had visited in order to see the painting's progress, and while there, Whistler began showing off Jo, of whose beauty he was quite proud.  Courbet was captivated, but it would not be for several more years until he would finally have the opportunity to paint the red-haired, porcelain-skinned beauty.  

Courbet's first painting of Hiffernan was painted in 1865 at the seaside commune of Trouville in northwestern France.  Whistler and Jo had travelled to Normandy from England to spend some time together, a luxury they had been denied while the artist's disapproving mother, Anna Whistler, was in residence in her son's London home (Jo had been forced to move out of Whistler's home, and could only return to model or do housework).  Courbet was the guest of the Duc de Choiseul at the time, and was quite the local celebrity, with many women visiting his studio and pleading with him to paint their portraits.⁷  While Whistler set out to paint the seaside, Courbet took the opportunity to paint Hiffernan. The resulting work was Jo, La Belle Irlandaise, with which Courbet vowed never to part, and which was, in truth, found in the Frenchman's studio after his death⁸ (Courbet did however paint copies of the painting, three of which, in addition to the original, survive today).

Le Sommeil

The next opportunity Courbet had to paint Jo took place the following year, while Whistler was away on an extended seven-month trip to Valparaiso, Chile.  Whistler had left Jo legally responsible for his home and business affairs while he was gone, but even though Hiffernan was a careful manager of Whistler's money, it became more difficult to keep away the creditors when no work of Whistler's was selling.  In need of an income, Hiffernan returned to the only profession she knew, modeling.  Courbet, an ardent admirer of this "superb redhead,"⁹  employed Jo to pose for a painting commissioned by the Turkish ambassador to Russia, Khalil Bey, who wished to own one of Courbet's notorious nudes.

Courbet would go on to create several explicit and erotic works for Bey.  Paresse et Luxure (Sloth and Lewdness), which Courbet later retitled Le Sommeil (Sleep), was one.  In it, the pale-skinned Hiffernan modeled for one of the two spent women lying asleep on a tousled bed.  The second painting Courbet created for Bey was the pornographic and infamous L'Origine du Monde, which depicts female genitalia, and which has long been rumored to have had Hiffernan as the model.

And now a recent used furniture shop find in France may confirm that Joanna Hiffernan is indeed the model in L'Origine du Monde.  The discovery, an incomplete painting of a woman's head and shoulders, appears to be Hiffernan, and according to Jean-Jacques Fernier, a Courbet expert and author of the the Courbet catalogue raisonné, the painting is the long-lost upper portion of L'Origine.  Other scholars, including several from the Musée d'Orsay, where L'Origine makes its home, disagree with Fernier's conclusion, but he is not moved.  Because of stylistic similarities between the works, the matching alignment of the canvas weave, and the results of chemical and spectographic tests, Fernier has staked his reputation on his belief that the two canvases form a single picture.  If Fernier is correct, the newly discovered canvas may be worth as much as $55 million USD.

Why Courbet would have separated the head from the torso is open to conjecture.  Possibly, it was an aesthetic decision, or maybe it was done at the request of Hiffernan herself.  Perhaps after so many years of having her intimate life put to canvas, she had finally decided that she wanted a greater privacy in her life.  

There is little information available on the latter years of Jo's life.  Rumors are that she married, and moved to the south of France where she ran an antiques business with the same intelligence and acumen she had displayed in her management of Whistler's early professional affairs.  According to the art collector, Charles Freer, who observed Hiffernan at Whistler's funeral, by all appearances, she had done quite well in life.¹⁰ 

¹ Spencer, Robin, Whistler's 'The White Girl': painting, poetry and meaning, The Burlington Magazine, Vol. 140, No. 1142, (May, 1998), p. 300.
² Symphony in White, No. 1: The White Girl, retrieved 02/19/13 from [http//,_No._1:_The_White_Girl].
³ Weintraub, Stanley, Whistler:  A Biography, (Da Capo Press, South Boston, 2001), p. 86.
⁴ Spencer, p. 309.
⁵ Idem.
⁶ Idem.
⁷ Weintraub, pp. 115-116.
⁸ Weintraub, p. 117.
⁹ Weintraub, p. 120.
¹⁰  Jiminez, Jill Berk, Dictionary of Artists' Models, (Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, 2001), p. 278.

Tuesday, February 12, 2013

Virtual Tour of Whistler's Peacock Room

 "The Story of the Beautiful – Freer, Whistler, & Their Points of Contact"

The Smithsonian's Freer Gallery of Art, in collaboration with Wayne State University in Detroit, has created an online virtual tour of James McNeill Whistler's decorating masterpiece, The Peacock Room. In one section of the site, visitors can take a 360˚ tour of the famous (and infamous) dining room as it appeared installed in Frederick Leland's mansion in London, and how it also appeared in Detroit after Charles Freer purchased the room in 1904 and had it reassembled in his mansion.  Letters, postcards, and archival photographs are also available for viewing, as well as more than 300 objets d'art, digitally photographed and enlargeable, which showcase the previous owners' differing tastes in ceramics.  For those unable to see the room in person as it appears now in Washington, D.C., this is a great alternative.

Korean stoneware with black and white inlays under celadon glaze
late 13th - early 14th century, Goryeo Period

detail of above

Lecture: "Significance of the Boston School"

There will be an open house at the Ingbretson Studio with a lecture by Paul Ingbretson on the Boston School of Painting – of which he is a part of the lineage - on March 3rd.  

Monday, February 11, 2013

Words of Wisdom: Aldro T. Hibbard

"[Hibbard] has something that the other American painters of these snow scenes, able as they are, do not possess – a superior subtilty (sic), a sense of values, a faculty of lifting the work above the plane of stark realism, and giving it the look of a higher kind of truth than literalism can the final refinements which give distinction and beauty to the landscape of midwinter we believe Mr. Hibbard has no peer."

Boston Evening Transcript, April 18, 1922

"Hibbard has never left anything to chance.  A snow-filled landscape is not just one moment arrested and
put to canvas;  it is the product of hours  of work outdoors backed by drawings made while he was in
love with the subject."  –Aldren A. Watson¹

Aldro Thompson Hibbard is one of America's greatest plein air painters of the snowy landscape.  Born in Falmouth, Massachusetts in 1886, Hibbard was possessed of a drive, discipline, athleticism, and love-of-the-outdoors, which made him peculiarly well-suited to representing the cold Vermont winters on canvas.  Though he excelled at figurative work during his studies under Joseph De Camp, Ernest Lee Major, Edmund C. Tarbell, and Frank W. Benson, Hibbard knew early on that he could never tolerate being a portrait painter.  "My forte is being in contact with the outdoors," Hibbard was quoted as saying.  "That's where most of my life has been spent, by choice.  That's where you get the stimulation and the excitement of the unexpected.  Nature, you know, is constantly changing, offering fresh challenges.  She won't come to your studio;  you must go to her."²  The following quotes from John Cooley's biography on Hibbard offer an insight into the working methods Hibbard adopted through his training at the Massachusetts Normal Art School and at the Boston Museum School of Art, and which he supplemented through experience gained during a career which spanned half-a-century.  These were the lessons he passed on to his own students when discussing the landscape:

"If you want intense color, go out before 9 and after 3, not at midday when the sun is bleaching everything."³ 

Be a close student of Nature.  Make mental and written notes on what you see outdoors.  Remember, there can be numerous color values in a single snowbank.

I have always found it exciting to  work outdoors where things are happening.  Inside, you lose the challenge, the stimulation.

Associate with your material, aesthetically as well as physically.  It's impossible to do that in a studio.

Beware of too much studio landscape painting.  Direct contact gives you the rare elements, moods of short duration.

Avoid using Nature photographically.  Many adjustments are usually necessary.  They should make the painting more successful as a work of art.

"You see why I was never a watercolor artist," said Hibbard.  "You just don't use water outdoors in January and February in the State of Vermont."⁴ 

Something is always happening outdoors.  Be on the lookout.  Take notes on the spot – what you see may happen only once.

My landscapes are not what the camera sees, or what you would see, but what I see.  I cater to myself, not the public.  I try to paint interesting subjects.

The foreground of your picture should be a lead-in to what is beyond.

Study the effects of moving light, which can cause cloud shadows on the landscape.  Shadows are very valuable – your best friends. A cut-and-dried landscape is dull.

Striking the right key is difficult.  The palette has its limitations in high color pitch.  Experiment with your equipment to overcome this problem.  Your palette should be a guide.  Reflected light is troublesome.

Hibbard would shovel through the snow and plant himself on the bare ground, using the snow-shelf as a support
for his palette and easel.
Once his equipment blew away and was lost;  he found it in April, the paint still usable.⁵

Too much white weakens your sketch.  Get color and vibrate it, without over-mixing.

In sketching outdoors, first get the essentials that mark the time of day.  Details can come later.

Paint fast.  Time is always against you.  Use up your nervous energy.  A morning's painting should wear you out.

Focus on a dominant part of your subject, whether sky, distance, middle distance, or foreground.

Don't forget that being an artist isn't just painting what you see;  it's interpreting what you see.  Otherwise, better study photography.

"Hibbard has never shown much interest in ivory towers, where so many painters less masculine in outlook get
bogged down in an aesthetic strait jacket that binds them to obscure meaning and half-faked pathological                        investigations.  With breezy directness, this New England painter goes after Nature in the rough."                
– Irma Whitney, Boston Herald.

Snow is the most sensitive subject, subtly influenced by sudden changes in light.  It is never dead white!

The glory of winter is that you rarely have two days alike, and that's a challenge.  Summer, on the other hand, can be less interesting because of the surplus of greenery.

Too high a key in a picture often sacrifices color and strength, and the painting becomes diluted.  We must lower Nature's key which many times is quite beyond the capacity of pigment.

Only experience will teach you what color can do.  Try constantly to improve your seeing-power.

In moving Nature to canvas, you must transform the material.  The difference between the actual scene and the finished picture is the painter's own self, his reactions, his purposes, his attitudes, and of course his ability to carry out his ideas.  That, incidentally, takes a lot of hard labor.

Hibbard's realism "is not of the petty, imitative sort, no mere slavish copy of appearances.  He gives us
the heart, the soul of the New England countryside, a super-reality, a vision both intimate and aloof.  
Viewing his snowscapes, one is tempted to breathe deep the bracing winter air – astringent, aseptic,  
challenging, but also inviting – which emanates from the canvas."                                                              
– J.H Weaver, Sr., Today's Art, 1961

"Hibbard is a realist; you feel the reality of everything he paints, but the sentiment, the poetry is there also. Others paint snow that looks like white paint streaked with blue and yellow. Hibbard paints snow that never looks like anything else but snow...he is... more subtle and more penetrating in his observation of delicate nuances of gray, the phenomenon of light on snow."

Boston Globe, 1918


In 1996, the Rockport Art Association, in celebration of their Diamond Jubilee, republished the excellent biography on Hibbard written by his long-time friend, journalist John L. Cooley.  Hibbard's advice to students, of which the above is just a humble portion culled from classroom notes and interviews, is only a small part of this interesting man's life story.  A.T. Hibbard, N.A. Artist in Two Worlds is available for purchase through, or directly through the Rockport Art Association Gift Shop, which also carries other books on Rockport artists, including the reprint of the acclaimed Gruppé on Painting. [see Underpaintings: Color Palettes:  Emil Albert Gruppé (1896-1978)]

*The Rockport Art Association Gift Shop portion of the website appears to have undergone some upgrades in the past year, but is not fully functioning for online orders.  Operators of the gift shop are very helpful, however, and can easily accept phone orders.  978.546.6604.

The Satin Dress (34" X 26") reveals Hibbard's ability as a figure painter, and shows the
influence of  The Boston Painters on his education.  The key of Hibbard's palette was
lowered in such a way as to make the highlights on the dress the highest value in the
picture, without sacrificing the color in the image.  This was a lesson he would later
apply to his landscapes and also relate to his students.

¹Cooley, John, A.T. Hibbard, N.A.: Artist in Two Worlds, second edition, (Rockport Art Association, Rockport, MA, 1996), p. 172.
² ibid., p. 25.
³ ibid., p. 100.
⁴ ibid., p. 63.
⁵ idem.

Friday, February 8, 2013

A Survey of 19th c. French Palettes

Prior to the 19th century, artists typically employed a palette composed primarily of earth-based pigments.  But advances in the science of color and vision, discoveries in chemistry, and new methods of portable paint storage initiated changes in the 1900s that would forever affect the artist's palette.

The influx of new pigments during the 19th century was, of course, welcomed by many artists, but certainly not by all.  Impressionists saw great potential in these new colors, and outfitted their palettes with the brightest, purest hues they could obtain.  They believed, erroneously, that if they could match the seven colors of the spectrum with their pigments, they could mix any color seen in the light;  the earth colors, including black, were deemed dull by the Impressionists, and were eschewed from the palette.  On the other hand, the classicists, those who trained at the Académie and held the coloring of Jacques-Louis David in high regard, thought the new pigments were too fragile, and remained steadfast in their loyalty to a limited palette of earth colors;  they felt that if earth colors were good enough for the Old Masters, then they were good enough for them as well.  On occasion these painters might employ a bright color, but only sparingly, and only in draperies.  Most artists, however, were not as polarized in their opinion of pigments, and adopted palettes which made the most of both approaches, maintaining neutral tones without shunning the brighter color options.

The Death of Bara by Charles Moreau-Vauthier

Early in the 20th century, Charles Moreau-Vauthier, a student of both Jean-Léon Gérôme and Paul Baudry, became curious about the effects the Impressionist palette had had on the classical palette.  Seeking a method to quantitatively measure the influence the new colors from the past century had on painting, he decided to survey Monsieur M. Lefranc, proprietor of the famous Paris paint-making firm Lefranc et Cie, to see which of his colors were most popular.  Based on sales, M. Lefranc, to the best of his ability, ranked his pigments in order of importance to artists, the results which Moreau-Vauthier published in his book Comment on Peint Aujourd'hui in 1922.

It was not surprising to Moreau-Vauthier that lead white was the most purchased pigment, but he was shocked to see so many pigments with bad reputations ranking so highly on the list.  It seemed that artists, once fond of a color, were reluctant to remove it from their palette, and found excuses as to why previously observed problems would not affect their artwork.  William Adolphe Bouguereau, for example, made use of several questionable pigments, including bitumen, the soundness of which he justified by telling detractors, "It makes sidewalks." (Though Bouguereau's paintings did not suffer the effects of bitumen as much as the works of some others, it is possible that the fine cracking in his paintings is the result of using the pigment).

Popularity of Pigments from Lefranc & Cie based on sales:

1. Blanc d'argent (lead white)
2. Jaune de chrome clair (chrome yellow light)
3. Vert émeraude (viridian)
4. Ocre jaune (yellow ochre)
5. Noir d'ivoire (ivory black)
6. Terre de Sienne brûlée (burnt sienna)
7. Vermillon français (French vermilion)
8. Vert Véronèse (Veronese green)
9. Jaune de chrome foncé (chrome yellow deep)
10. Terre de Sienne naturelle (raw sienna)
11. Laque carminée ordinaire (carmine lake)
12. Outremer n° 1 (ultramarine blue # 1)
13. Bleu de cobalt (cobalt blue)
14. Outremer n˚ 2 (ultramarine blue #2)
15. Jaune de Naples (Naples yellow)
16. Blanc de zinc (zinc white)
17. Bleu de Prusse ordinaire (Prussian blue)
18. Laque garance rose (madder lake, pink shade)
19. Laque garance foncée (madder lake deep)
20. Bleu de cobalt foncé (cobalt blue deep)
21. Carmin (carmine)
22. Terre d'ombre naturelle (raw umber)
23. Bitume (bitumen)
24. Bleu de Prusse fin (Prussian blue fine)
25. Terre d'ombre brûlée (burnt umber)
26. Jaune indien (Indian yellow)
27. Laque carminée fine (carmine lake fine)
28. Brun Van Dyck (Vandyke brown)
29. Blanc d'argent double (lead white in large quantity?)
30. Bleu minéral (mineral blue)
3i. Jaune cadmium clair (cadmium yellow light)
32. Vermillon de Chine (Chinese vermilion)
33. Jaune brillant (brilliant yellow)
34. Vert anglais I (English green)
35. Ocre rouge (red ochre)
36. Jaune citron (citron yellow or lemon yellow)
37. Jaune cadmium foncé (cadmium yellow deep)
38. Jaune cadmium citron (cadmium yellow lemon)
39. Laque garance rose dorée (rose madder gold lake)
40. Rouge de Venise (Venetian red)
41. Laque jaune (yellow lake)
42. Violet de cobalt (cobalt violet)
43. Laque géranium (geranium lake)
44. Jaune chrome orange (chrome yellow orange)
45. Rouge de Saturne (minimum/red lead)
46. Vert anglais III (English green III)
47. Laque garance ordinaire (madder lake)
48. Vermillon anglais (English vermilion)
49. Bleu céruléum (cerulean blue)
50. Cinabre vert foncé (Cinnabar green deep)
5i. Cinabre vert clair (Cinnabar green light)
52. Vert anglais II (English green II)
53. Jaune cadmium orange (cadmium yellow orange)
54. Ocre d'or (gold ochre)
55. Brun de Mars (Mars brown)
56. Laque de gaude (yellow lake)

Some Notes on the Pigments:

8.  Veronese Green was originally the same as the English Emerald Green, a compound of copper and arsenic.  By 1893, Veronese Green was identical to viridian (3. vert émeraude), and was probably only listed as a separate color as a matter of tradition.

11., 21., & 27. Carmine and carmine lakes referred to colors produced from tinctures of crushed female cochineal insects.

12. & 14.  The designations of #1 and #2 after ultramarine blue may have referred to different color shifts (red/green) or different degrees of particulate size.  These were likely artificial ultramarines, and not made from lapis lazuli.

18., 19., 39., & 47.  These are reds made from a tincture of the madder root, though it is probable that by the time of this survey, these colors were actually being made from alizarin.

33.  Jaune brilliant was an alternative to Naples yellow.  It was prepared from chrome yellow and lead white.

34., 46., & 52.  English Greens I, II, and III were mixtures of chrome yellow and Prussian Blue in varying proportions.

36. Citron yellow was made from zinc, while lemon yellow was chrome-based.  The former was more durable.

43.  Geranium lake was based on aniline dyes and was extremely fugitive.

56.  Yellow lake was another fugitive color, prepared in several different ways.  This version is possibly made by a tincture of quercitron bark, which was considered better than tinctures prepared from vegetable dyes.

Sunday, February 3, 2013

Sneak Peek: Maxwell Alexander Gallery
Drawings and Works on Paper

Vincent Xeus
String, in the Event of Light
charcoal and pastel
25 X 19.5 in.

California's young, and very promising, Maxwell Alexander Gallery will celebrate the art of drawing with an exhibition opening later this week.  This new show Drawing and Works on Paper features approximately two dozen drawings, pastels, and etchings from many of today's top artists including Scott Burdick, Damian Chavez, Nicholas Coleman, Glenn Dean, Phil Epp, Logan Maxwell Hagege, Jefferson Hayman, Jeremy Lipking, Susan Lyon, Emil Joseph Robinson, Alexey Steele, Joseph Todorovitch, Leonardo Villasenor, and Vincent Xeus.  Also included in the show are several historic works by artists Will Shuster and Maynard Dixon.  

Drawing and Works on Paper opens this Saturday, February 9th, with an artists' reception from 7:00 to 10:00 PM.  All are invited to come out and see these works in person.

The Maxwell Alexander Gallery is located at 6144 Washington Boulevard, in Culver City, California, 90232. For more information about the exhibition, please contact Beau Alexander (818) 635-4632, or visit

Susan Lyon
Spanish Dancer
pastel pencil on paper
22 X 18 in.

Susan Lyon
Timeless Beauty
pastel pencil on paper
20 X 18 in.

Scott Burdick
Tanzanian Market
charcoal on paper
22 X 17 in.

Damian Chavez
mixed-media on buff paper
12 X 9 in.

Damian Chavez
graphite and colored pencil on Ingrés paper
14 X 11 in.

Jefferson Hayman
Near Skyline (limited edition 1/9)
silver gelatin print in antique frame
12 X 10 in. (framed)

Jefferson Hayman
Tack (limited edition 3/25)
silver gelatin print in antique frame
9 X 7 in. (framed)

Jefferson Hayman
Paris (limited edition 1/9)
gelatin print in antique frame
silver 14 X 19.5 in (framed)

Glenn Dean
Valley Riders
charcoal on paper
8.5 X 10 in.

Logan Maxwell Hagege
Facing the Sun
graphite on paper
20 X 18 in.

Joseph Todorovitch
Voulupta Remorseful
23 X 17 in.

Emil Joseph Robinson
Woman 1
pastel on paper
30 X 22 in.

Emil Joseph Robinson
Woman 3
pastel on paper
30 X 22 in.

Leonardo Villasenor
El Pavo Real
12 X 26 in.

Saturday, February 2, 2013

Words of Wisdom: Harrington Mann (1864-1937)

Harrington Mann
Portrait of a Young Girl (1927)
oil on canvas
29 X 25 in.

"There is one thing about painting – you can be a student to the end of your days.  You can never learn all you want to know.  There is no end to adventure and experiment.  There is always a problem to be solved and there is intense pleasure all the time in trying to solve it."¹

¹ Mann, Harrington, The Technique of Portrait Painting, (Seeley Service & Co., London, 1933), p. 142.